Science fiction has not yet managed to establish itself in Colombia as a genre in its own right, however. Nothing could better proclaim the arrival in Venezuela of the new genre of science fiction. We have no other record of Venezuelan sf until the end of the s, when the start of the space race between the US and the Soviet Union triggered in Venezuela—as it had in other Latin American countries—a prolific increase in the number of sf authors.
In , Julio E. We have been able to find only sporadic and incomplete information about Venezuelan sf texts published since then. Before changing its name in to the Venezuelan Science Fiction and Fantasy Association, Ubik organized sf film festivals, literary contests and workshops, conferences, and expos. The next two experiments with the genre come from the s, a.
It is difficult even to find exact titles and publication dates for the few other sf stories written before the s. One of those efforts was a contest sponsored by the United Nations that resulted in an anthology of sf stories by young writers, published by Santillana in In it, Spedding, an English anthropologist who has lived in Bolivia since , imagines her adoptive country in the year having been taken over by an indigenous revolution led by the Aymara Indian majority. As a linguistic innovation, the novel mixes Spanish, Spanglish, and Aymara. Peru The earliest examples of science fiction written in Peru are two short stories by Clemente Palma published in the first decade of the twentieth century.
Adolph and Juan Rivera Saavedra. Ironically, although Adolph is considered the primary sf author associated with Peru, he was born in Germany and only became a Peruvian citizen in His work has been translated into several languages and included in anthologies in the US, Europe, and Latin America. Saavedra uses the genre as a weapon to denounce social problems of the time, the worst being, according to him, our own loss of humanity. The first novel recounts a trip to Glasskan, a utopian planet where human beings go to be trained in the art of achieving perfection, while the second describes how those men return to Earth to bring peace and prosperity but find no one there who deserves these gifts.
Unfortunately, the growth of Latin American science fiction during the s and s to which Adolph and others contributed in Peru does not seem to have lasted very long. Peruvian readers, according to Salvo, must resign themselves to cheap second-hand copies of sf works, since powerful publishers such as the aforementioned ones offer new books at inflated prices or have stopped making them available altogether.
At the same time, Peruvian sf authors do not have access to publishing houses in their own country and must seek to publish their work abroad. Brazil In the mid-nineteenth century, Brazilian authors begin writing tales of imaginary societies and voyages into the future in the mode of Verne and Flammarion.
Benignus, ]. Beginning in the early part of the twentieth century, works of this sort address more controversial topics, such as social and agrarian reform, eugenics, and the social roles of women. The late s and early s ushered in the first works of modern sf published in Brazil. Known as the GRD Generation, after Gumercindo Rocha Dorea—one of the few Brazilian publishers of the genre during this period—these authors demonstrated originality in their reworking of typical sf motifs such as space travel, alien contact, robots, and nuclear war, by filtering them through the perspective of Brazilian culture.
It could be said that these works anticipated the actual policies of modernization and development initiated by the Brazilian military beginning in Brazilian science fiction of the late s and the s can be divided into two categories: narratives of the fantastic and dystopian novels. At this point, almost all of the typical motifs of science fiction disappear, except for the uncanny events of fantastic literature and the clockwork worlds of imaginary technocratic regimes. In the s, several mainstream authors turned to dystopian fiction to avoid censorship by the regime, disguising their critiques of its policies of fast-paced economic development in their futuristic tales.
Recurrent themes include governmental regulation of reproduction and sexual behavior, policies of modernization, the destruction of natural environments, and control of the media and the minds of citizens. Coinciding with the end of the dictatorship in , a new generation of writers emerges and begins to write in a wide variety of sf subgenres.
Aliens are portrayed in a variety of ways, reflecting divergent attitudes towards globalization. During this period, science fiction written by women becomes more common. Although contemporary sf in Brazil expresses a global consciousness, it also generally attempts to retain its national character. Argentina Argentina has a wide-ranging and rich history of fantastic literature, particularly of science fiction. This short story, an exercise in social and urban criticism following the dicta of the French Revolution, is set in in Buenos Aires and its main character is Tremebundo, a kind of superman who makes all sorts of improvements in the city.
Many sf works were written in the second half of the nineteenth century, partly because of the political stability that had been achieved after decades of unrest and partly due to the creative impulse reigning in Buenos Aires society at that time. This novel—which Borges is said to have called perfect —explores two key topics in science fiction: the search for immortality and the nature of reality. Bioy Casares, winner of the Cervantes Award the Nobel Prize of Spanish letters , turned to science fiction several times, although critics did not acknowledge his affiliation with the genre for quite some time.
It was also at this time that the comic El Eternauta became available. This comic, with scripts by H. During the s, sf works began appearing more frequently in anthologies, in short-story collections, and as novels. Later, the same author would write studies about Cordwainer Smith, Philip K. Dick, J. Ballard, and J. Tolkien, among others. Science fiction in Argentina was strengthened during the s by the publication of specialized collections and several books by Argentinian authors.
After a bloody dictatorship and decades of political instability, the sf genre began to flourish with the return of democratic governments in Numerous other publications, both professional and amateur, also appeared in connection with the magazine. Between and more Argentinian sf works were published than in the whole of the previous period. The former started in and is the longest-running Spanish-language magazine dedicated to the genre, and the latter is an electronic publication, a pioneer in its field that began its distribution via diskette in and now appears on a very popular web site.
During the s, a downturn in the economy brought a considerable reduction in the publication of sf works. A few noteworthy novels appeared, but only sporadically, and many of the authors whose names had appeared frequently a decade earlier either abandoned the genre or remained silent. Also worth noting is the launch of Nautilus , edited by Carlos Abrahan, the first publication in Latin America dedicated exclusively to sf criticism. Up until the late s, most Chilean sf authors paid little attention to scientific plausibility, mixing the fantastic with technological innovations to create a convenient platform from which to examine serious social issues.
They wrote for rival magazines and penned thrilling stories full of technological gadgetry and action-adventure heroics in the style of the US pulps. Writers were now less isolated from each other and from their readers, and they shared a sense of purpose in developing and promoting this new genre in Chile. The first sf fan club was formed in the s and around this time Julio Bravo Eichkoff launched two short-lived fanzines, Sagitario and Aleph A new generation has been sustaining Chilean sf since the late s.
Vega recently compiled a comprehensive bibliography of the genre this Chronology owes a large debt to these three researchers. Jorge Baradit recently achieved a milestone in Chilean sf when his novel Ygdrasil was released by a major international publisher. There is every reason to expect a vigorous Chilean presence on the future Spanish-language sf scene.
Uruguay Uruguayan science fiction was only a collection of isolated texts until the s, when a few authors began producing a body of work identifiable within the genre. It must be noted that a significant portion of Uruguayan science fiction was published outside the country, either because the authors lived abroad mostly in Argentina or because they found better publishing conditions there than in their own country. As a consequence, Uruguayan authors suffered from isolation and a lack of mutual influence.
Horacio Quiroga, a master of short narrative, tried his hand at every genre, including science fiction. Levrero is the central figure in Uruguayan science fiction in the second half of the 20th century, but it is difficult to state conclusively that his work fits squarely within the genre. And yet, the sense of strangeness he conveys, his surrealist landscapes and the unusual situations surrounding his characters place Levrero, like Ballard, on the edge of science fiction. Beginning in the mids a few small groups of authors and fans have joined together to launch several short-lived science fiction magazines.
There are also a number of writers, such as W. Finally, Ana Solari, with sf novels such as Zack , deserves mention as the most prominent figure of the past few years, although her latest works veer away from the genre. El Nacional. Los argentinos en la luna , ed. Eduardo Goligorsky, only a fragment. There are other reprints. Olivera, Carlos.
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Filigranas de cera y otros textos , ed. Enriqueta Morillas Ventura, Other reprints are available. Buenos Aires en el siglo XXX. Lugones, Leopoldo. Reprinted many times. La ciudad anarquista americana. La psiquina. Cuentos fatales anth. Quiroule, Pierre. La mujer de Lot.
Bioy Casares, Adolfo. El jardin de senderos que se bifurcan anth. El perjurio de la nieve anth. Borges, Jorge Luis. Ficciones anth. Cancela, Arturo. Historia funambulesca del profesor Landormy. Svanascini, Osvaldo. Hacia un mundo perfecto. El Aleph anth. Contraste de dos mundos. Yanquis en Marte. Su majestad Dulcinea. El tanque invencible. Vall, Carlos. Part I of this very influential comic. El viaje a otros planetas. Pracilio, Ovidio. El uranio de los atlantes. La primera base interplanetaria. Sobrevolando mundos desconocidos.
Verbitsky, Bernardo. Dabove, Santiago. La muerte y su traje anth. Memorias del futuro anth. Marechal, Leopoldo. El poema de robot poem. Polvo lunar. Los invasores anth. Castagnini, Carlos. Goligorsky, Eduardo, and Alberto Vanasco, eds. Opus dos. Grassi, Alfredo Julio. Tres tumbas en Venus. Plenipotencia anth. La ciudad del futuro. Ideal de los hombres que impulsaron el Chaco.
Nacarato, Vicente. Goligorsky, Eduardo, ed. Los argentinos en la Luna anth. Las pelucas anth. Zappietro, Eugenio. Tiempo de matar. Historia de monstruos anth. Diario de la guerra del cerdo. Presidente en la mira. Prohibido estacionar anth. Bajo las jubeas en flor anth. Manguel, Alberto, ed. Dormir al sol.
Mariotti, Maximiliano. Posse, Abel. Momento de morir. Vanasco, Alberto. Nuevas memorias del futuro anth. Desde Delos en frecuencia modulada anth. Las zonas transparentes anth. El univac. Viaje al sol. Casal de patitos. Mi cerebro animal anth. Kalpa Imperial. Libro I: La casa del poder. Ramos Signes, Rogelio. Gardini, Carlos. Juegos malabares. Un paseo por Camarjali. Denevi, Marco. Manuel de historia. Souto, Marcial, ed. Joe Penas en Necroburgo. Historias desaforadas anth. Cohen, Marcelo. Gaut vel Hartman, Sergio. Cuerpos descartables anth. El fondo del pozo. Moledo, Leonardo.
Mourelle, Daniel, ed. Parsec XXI anth. Punto muerto anth. Carletti, Eduardo J. Gaut vel Hartman, Sergio, ed. Fase uno anth. Souto, Marcial. Para bajar a un pozo de estrellas anth. Pedro Luis Barcia anth. La reina del plata. Historia de la Fragua y otros inventos anth. Trampas para pesadillas anth. Viajando se conoce gente anth. Montes, Francisco. Emaciano en el umbral. El fin de los tiempos anth. Barbieri, Daniel. Capanna, Pablo, ed. Gandolfo, Elvio. Gutman, Daniel.
Contra tiempo. Por media eternidad, cayendo anth. No somos una banda. Los ojos de Dios anth.
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El fin de lo mismo anth. Chefjec, Sergio. El aire. Chernov, Carlos. Amores brutales anth. Control remoto. Moreno, Horacio, ed. Piglia, Ricardo. La ciudad ausente. La venganza de Killing. De Santis, Pablo. Astronauta solo. El libro de la Tierra Negra. Jesucristo en Plaza de Mayo anth. Holmberg, Eduardo Ladislao. Olimpio Pitango de Monalia. Fase 2 anth. Santoro, Osvaldo. Cementerio de caracoles. Bizzio, Sergio. Inolvidables veladas. Monstruos por el borde del mundo. Sasturain, Juan. Zenitram anth. El abogado del marciano. Blaustein, Eduardo.
Cruz diablo. Frasch, Carlos Alberto. La respuesta del eco. La muerte como efecto secundario. Casares, Adolfo Bioy. De un mundo a otro. Casas, Mario. Anillos estelares. Alcoba, Daniel. Urbanyi, Pablo. Doctor de mundos anth. Filigranas de cera y otros textos anth. El juego de los mundos. La seriedad anth. El libro de la Tribu. Guebel, Daniel. El perseguidor.
Silvani, Silvia. Al sol anth. Pinedo, Rafael. Teruggi, Mario E. Reality Life. Goyeneche, Jorge. Semblantes de bestias. Mateu, Pablo J. El irisid. La cara hembra de dios. Alfie, Alejandro. Alonso, Alejandro. Postales desde Oniris. La ruta a Trascendencia anth. Bonsembiante, Fernando. La tardecita de los dioses anth. El libro de las voces anth. Dania Regina. Guralnik, Gabriel, ed. Huertas, Jorge. Mairal, Pedro. White, Richard J.
Table of Contents
Tralfamadore 1 issue. Supernova 11 issues. Maximum 1 issue. El abismo de Estrellas. Cuentos breves. Latinoamerica El viaje. Mesa, Isabel, and Rafael Archondo, eds. Spedding, Alison.
De cuando en cuando Saturnina. O Doutor Benignus. A rainha do Ignoto. O Reino do Kiato. A liga dos planetas. O Presidente Negro. Neves, Berilo. A mulher e o diabo anth. O outro mundo. Netto, Gomes. Del Picchia, Menotti. Kalum , o selvagem. Schmidt, Afonso. Maio, Tadeu e H. O colar de sidera. A cidade perdida.
A paz veio de Marte. O homem que viu o disco-voador. Silenck Fernandes, Jenny. Amei un marciano. As noites marcianas anth. Silveira de Queiroz, Dinah. Fuga para parte alguma. Rocha Dorea, Gumercindo, ed. Ribeiro da Costa, Vasco. Ocsaf: meu amigo marciano. A filha do Inca-republica Mil sombras da nova lua anth. Sassi, Guido Wilmar. Testemunha do tempo anth. O dia em que o mundo encolheu.
Menezes, Levy. O 3 planeta anth. O Homem que adivinhava anth. Dunquerque universal. A hora dos ruminantes. O planeta perdido. Tangentes da realidade anth. Comba Malina anth. Queda livre anth. Vieira, Walter Paulo. O ciclo do apocalipse. As mulheres dos cabelos de metal. Teixeira Scavone, Rubens. Giudice, Victor.
Gomes, Osias. Sombras de reis barbudos. A serpente no atalho. Buarque, Chico. Fazenda modelo. Cunha, Fausto. O beijo antes do sono. Ramos, Anatole. O convidado anth. Incidente em Antares. De Paiva, Garcia. Sales, Herberto. O fruto do vosso ventre.
Carvajal y Mendoza, Luisa de (1566-1614)
O menino e o anjo. Os sonhos nascem da areia. Rachaus, Jorge. A grande bofetada. Seljan, Zora. Asilo nas torres. A cachoeiradas eras. Cadeiras proibidas anth. Morte, no palco anth. A nova terra. Piscina livre. O dia da nuvem anth. Izaguirre, Gerald C. Fenda no tempo. Scliar, Moacyr. O centauro no jardim. Metro para o outro mundo. Miss Ferrovia Alice do quinto diedro. Pugno, Paolo Fabrizio. A porta de chifre. Daniel, Herbert. Souza, Marcio. A ordem do dia. Valente, Margot L. Spectra, o planeta misterioso.
O dia das lobas. Carmo, G. Fresnot, Daniel. Gendarte, Cristina. Contos do futuro anth. Vamos guri, conta essa. Leminski, Paulo. Calixte, Marien. Dos Santos Abreu, Adelino. Viagem a um planeta artificial por rapto. Mondello de Souza, Jane.
Antologia Antares anth. Sirkis, Alfredo. Silicone XXI. Apenas um sonho. Calife, Jorge Luiz. Horizonte de eventos. Paiva, Marcelo Rubens. A porta de chifres. Schima, Roberto. Pequenas portas do eu anth. Yazbeck, Miguel. Homo Sapiens Prolificus. Pastoral de rua. De Figuereido Portes, Max. Tem um disco voador na minha radiola. Fontoura, Marco. Freitas de Andrade, Floro. Jogo terminal. Smith, A. Tartari Ferreira]. Flory, Henrique V. Mainardi, Diogo. Mallmann Souto-Pereira, Max. Renner, Paulo Roberto. Enquanto houver natal anth. O acontecimento. Tavares, Braulio.
A casca da serpente. Calado, Ivanir. A ponte das estrelas. Do outro lado do tempo anth. O fim do terceiro mundo. Vigna Lehmann, Elvira. A um passo de Eldorado.
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Linha terminal. Travessias anth. Fawcett, Fausto. Santa Clara Poltergeist. A pedra que canta , anth. O inventor de estrelas anth. O sorriso do lagarto. Vasconcellos, Lucia Helena, and Bento Abbondati, eds. Kupstas, Marcia. Maia Dias, Carlos Magno. Algum lugar lugar nenhum. Rangel, Paulo. Regina, Ivan Carlos. O 31o peregrino. De Oliveira, Xavier. Rega-bofes na Ilha Fiscal. De Sousa Causo, Roberto, ed.
Dinossauria tropicalia anth. Kujawski, Guilherme. Piritas siderais: romance cyberbarroco. Pires, Itamar. Contos de Solibur anth. Zatar, Luiz. Estranhos visitantes. Mundo bizarro. Orsi Martinho, Carlos. A cidade proibida. Lodi-Ribeiro, Gerson. Pinheiro de Vasconcellos, Guy. Mundo fantasmo anth. Imperatriz ao fim do mundo. Estranhos contatos anth. O vampiro de Nova Holanda.
Moroni Barroso, Ciro. Gulliver registros de descoberta da esfera terra. Bozano, Gabriel. De Sousa Causo, Roberto. Outros Brasis anth. Patati [pseud. A sorte dos girinos. Simao Branco, Marcello, ed. Outras copas, outros mundos anth. Intempol: uma antologia de contos sobre viagens no tempo anth. Terra Verde. Lodi-Ribeiro, Gerson, ed. A viagem anth. Klautau, Michelle.
Raposo, Alexandre. Tapioca, Ruy. Sementes do gelo. A caverna de cristais: O arqueiro e a feiticeira. Angus: O primeiro guerreiro. Pelligrini, Domingos. Mallman, Max. Mee, Luiz Roberto. O prisioneiro da sombra. Armanon: O quinto aliado. Paes, Orlando. O guerreiro de Deus. Tierra Firme: Novela futurista. Thayer Ojeda, Luis. Pacha Pulai. El mundo en ruinas. El secreto del Doctor Baloux anth.
Rojas, Manuel. Campanario de la Humanidad. Leyenda de la ciudad perdida anth. Lazo Jarpa, Hugo. El caracol y la diosa. Doezis, Michel [pseud. Este poderoso reloj. El convoy errante anth. Correa, Hugo. Alguien mora en el viento. El que merodea en la lluvia. Aquellos anth. Poemas para una casa en el cosmos. Montagne, Antoine [pseud. Los superhomos. Hominum Terra anth. Uranidas, go home! Ordenes Pincheira, Carlos. Aventuras espaciales anth.
El Cristo hueco. Cadiz Avila, Ilda. Cuando Pilato se opuso anth. Collage anth. Montagne, Antoine. No morir anth. Von Bennewitz, Roberto. Los ojos del diablo. Ruiz-Tagle, Carlos. La luna para el que la trabaja anth. La tarjeta de Dios anth. Frias, Gustavo. Pasaje al fondo de la tierra. Lorrain, Paul. El taller de los trece. La bella durmiente. El embajador del cosmos. Arteche, Miguel. Mapas del otro mundo anth.
Emar, Juan. Tineffi, Mafalda. El cielo del cielo. El nido de las furias. Maier, Sergio. El color de la amatista. Weber, Bernardo. Most professional fasters were women, often widows, who ensured collective salvation, in the wake of Esther. In Madrid, those professional fasters were distributed according to the neighborhoods they lived in.
That is why, when the converso Manuel Cortizos, asentista of Philip IV , died, Leonor received some reales to fast for the sake of his soul. By traveling from house to house, these widows acted as vectors of group identity and cohesion by maintaining relationships across the community. At the same time, being paid was thought to dissuade them from denouncing community members to the Inquisition. Repression and secrecy shaped the basic social organization of the Recusant and Marrano communities, increasing the prominence of certain individuals, either real or spiritual.
These forces also directly influenced individual beliefs and practices. But because of the absence of normative institutions, practices were ever flexible, achieving a form of legitimacy through creativity. One extremely significant difference between the two groups resides in the fact that the Recusants defined themselves as Christians and lived in a Christian environment.
Therefore, in comparison to the Marranos, the Recusants had considerably more room to maneuver and a wider array of resources that they could either exploit or distort. Nevertheless, the example of the coexistence of Lutherans and Calvinists within the Holy Empire confirmed that similarity paradoxically compelled the two faiths to emphasize their differences. The fact remains that in both cases, adaptation ruled daily life. The necessity of occasionally participating in official religious activities, the criticisms of the diaspora notwithstanding, entailed a certain amount of compromise and negotiation in terms of social imperatives.
In England, for example, heads-of-household and elder sons were often required to be seen conforming to social conventions in public as a way of preserving their property as well as their dignity. Similarly, the strong preference for a spouse of the same faith and the constraints of clandestine living often tended to dissolve in the face of socio-economic imperatives. Lorenzo Angel and his wife Gracia Rola, for example, were crypto-Jews from Badajoz who raised their children within the faith but who gave their three daughters in marriage to Old Christian hidalgos in exchange of significant dowries and false evidence of pure blood, while preferring on the other hand that their son married a crypto-Jewish woman.
The couple and two of their daughters were later tried and convicted by the Holy Office in The absence of a central authority to ensure conformity with religious norms, at least not always in the case of the Recusants, meant that individuals were masters of their own practices in the eyes of the clandestine group. Depending on possibilities, obligations, and the rites that individuals considered important, they adopted traditions that developed over time depending on the possibilities and contacts they had.
An individual might adopt ritual objects and practices that were not common in the Jewish or Catholic orthodoxies, but that fitted life in clandestinity, such as food habits among the Marranos. From this perspective, the religiosity of these groups appears highly creative and quite remote from the syncretism or spiritual and ritual impoverishment long attributed to Marrano practices by historiography and interpreted as signs of assimilation.
Marranos were clearly aware of the imperfections of their rituals from an orthodox point of view, but they seem to have fully accepted these divergences. Adaptation and ritual invention appear to have been encouraged by the diaspora, whose members adopted an understanding attitude while officially remaining critical. At least, this was the case for those who had once been forced to hide or had been led to do so under certain circumstances. To direct the devout christian in a regular and orderly course Douai?
The aim was not to mimic mainstream forms of worship, but to approximate the functions of the Catholic sacraments through content rather than through form. Other publications from the diaspora or printed locally on clandestine presses in the case of the Recusants 36 provided instruments that were fit for secrecy, including the image of a rosary inserted into a prayer book that could replace the object itself. This was the case, for example, in the … Instructions for the use of the beades, conteining many matters of meditacion or mentall prayer […] where unto is added a figure or forme of the beades portrued in a Table […] for the benefite of unlearned [ … ] , which was published by John Bucke in Louvain in and which indicated the exact times when particular prayers should be recited.
This calendar was included in the sixth edition of the Daily exercise of the devout Christian. Containing several moving practices of piety […] , by Thomas Vincent and Anselm Crowder, which was published in Dublin in Social networks were the place where such documents circulated both in Spain and in England. These books, far from being mere emblems of belonging, acquired a certain degree of sacredness and played a role in the religious lives of the groups, both individually and collectively. They were also often endowed with a certain degree of holiness.
The Catholic gentry built chapels in their houses, while kitchens became central in Marrano homes because of the importance of their food habits. More than specific locations, however, this phenomenon entailed a process of separation as well as the consecration of new spaces. The separation was as physical as it was ritual or spiritual, using objects of worship, ideas, or words.
Secret places of worship were not limited to houses, however. Other familiar spaces were constructed by networks of solidarity and religious sociability and nurtured by forms of concentration, both in the close-knit social fabric of the cities and the looser weaving of the social organization in rural areas. Demographic concentration could lead to the privatization of certain public spaces.
This spatial appropriation was made possible by both cohabitation and spatial grouping as well as by the trajectories of individuals who circulated within the territory such as missionary priests and women fasters. The Spitalfields neighborhood in London functioned as a Recusant district: families from East Anglia had their London homes there, some of which were built on the sites of the Priory and the Augustine Saint Mary Hospital.
There were clandestine chapels, and there were scribes to keep them supplied with religious texts. There were also priests, among them Henry Garnet and Robert Southwell, who installed his clandestine printing presses in the home of the Countess of Arundel. These transitional zones included spaces at the edge of the city or vacant plots of land that could sometimes be appropriated for religious purposes or social gatherings. Crypto-Jews apparently met regularly in his garden in the s to share meals or to celebrate major Jewish holidays. The garden was leveled, plowed, and sown with salt by order of the Holy Inquisition, because the Law of Moses was taught here.
May no one ever remove or touch this column on pain of excommunication. The small size of these inns and the comings and goings of travelers helped create semi-public locations where people enjoyed a form of invisibility. The physical body was the holy space par excellence for secret religious communities, probably because it enshrined the most intimate spaces.
Like the body, certain practices and objects were singled out by clandestine life, such as rosaries and holy water among Recusants, and food and candles for Marranos. But while in such cases, this implied the intensification of their pre-existing sacred dimension, certain other profane objects were consecrated by the process of ritualization itself. And once the prayer was recited seven times, it was repeated for each of the seven strands that were pulled. The precision of the movements and the scrupulous respect of their sequence counted as much as the prayers themselves, because it was the multiplication of the gestures that sacralized the items.
Conversely, some instruments of worship such as the communion wafer and communion bread of our earlier examples, or pork for the Marranos, served as negative poles that accentuated the sacredness of their positive counterparts. The power of these items could actually increase by the aura of orthodoxy and the prestige of the diaspora independently of their ritual function.
Exiles were well aware of this, including a refugee in Louvain named Thomas Stuckley who sent some crucifixes to England after he had had them blessed by the Pope. It was sufficient for a Recusant to look at one of the crucifixes with devotion to earn fifty days of indulgence. In fact, any object from the diaspora, such as books, provided the impression of being in proximity to Judaism or Catholicism, and thus to the purity of orthodoxy. Even the tiniest fragment or artifact could become an amulet useful for many ritual purposes. In the s, this was the case of a piece of paper that Diego de San Juan, from Baeza, in Andalusia, received from a soldier in Italy.
This paper served as a talisman whose power was an outgrowth of its content, but also of the fact that it originated in the diaspora. This ensured that the document could serve an infinite variety of purposes and be adapted to the varying practices of the group, like the relics and body parts of people perceived as martyrs and venerated, which all became religious focal points that created a sense of community identity.
This was made possible, in turn, by the fact that the culture of martyrdom, like in other religious minorities, filled the imaginaries and practices of Recusants and Marranos alike. It is no surprise that a sense of martyrdom developed in groups that were subjects of repression over long periods of time. While the Recusants linked their sufferings with the early Christian martyrs, 60 including Christ and the Apostles to whom they, as a result, felt closer, the Marranos identified with the Hebrews enslaved by pagans. The singularity of this culture of martyrdom, beyond the fact that it defined their imaginaries and how they constructed their sense of identity, stems from the fact that it formed the core of their relationship to the diaspora.
The captivity of the Recusants and the Marranos, who experienced oppression and lived in clandestinity, is interpreted in Messianic terms, with their suffering bearing witness to the Election of the new Israel and to the oncoming end of time. These martyrs are portrayed in frescoes by Circignani, also known as Pomarancio, that were distributed via engravings from onward, and that covered the walls of the church of the English College in Rome. The frescoes were particularly striking because of their realistic depictions of suffering.
This painting represents the Trinity, with the blood of Christ flowing over a map of Great Britain, surrounded by the earliest martyrs—Saint Thomas of Canterbury and Saint Edmund. Further support for this culture of martyrdom was contained in the martyrologies written and usually published by diaspora communities that celebrated the victims of the repression in Spain and in England.
The martyrologies were far more numerous among Catholics and were sometimes illustrated. They were usually published in the form of annual calendars of religious celebrations and were originally written in English or Latin—and sometimes in Spanish—but were quickly translated.