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Point the browser of your PDA or mobile phone to pocket. La ciudad letrada. Montevideo: Arca. Barr Jr.. Barr Jr. En una columna de la revista Semana, Traba se defiende ! Lo que hubo fue un mayor ingreso del capital privado, evidente en unas colaboraciones entre la OEA y la petrolera Esso, culminadas en ! XII, n. Alternative Languages and Networks in the 70s and 80s!

See Greenberg Postal or mail art is considered a neglected topic of art history, haunting both academia and the museum by its unacknowledged development in the late Cold War years. Idem, These questions call for the need to de-romanticize the notion of the network and situate antagonism in the practice of relational art. For Kurtycz did not use mail art simply to connect or dialogue with other artists.

He thus structured communication networks around the idea of a battlefield, registering multidirectional provocations, exercises in symbolic capture, and asymmetrical power flows. Kurtycz and the artefacto The artistic practice of Jean Kurtycz, later called Marcos or Marek, falls outside sharply defined national and aesthetic categories.

During his ! Craig J. Despite his friendship and common interests with some of the members of the Mexican avant-garde of the s, organized as art collectives and known as Los Grupos, Kurtycz always remained a solitary figure, difficult to situate geographically or historically, and often exoticized through labels such as ritualist, terrorist, and shaman. To some extent, this responds to the challenges that his work poses to art history written from a national perspective.

Indeed, national borders or national histories are weak prisms through which to approach him. His artistic practice was simultaneously in dialogue with artistic movements heavily committed to social protest in Mexico City and Tijuana, US performance art, and the Polish post-war avant-garde. Furthermore, a formalist reading of his work requires interdisciplinarity and bricolage, for he delved into cybernetics, collage, film, mail art, book printing, design and performance. And he combined a hyper-modern poetics interconnecting transnational and intermedial networks with the ritual or sacrificial languages of archaic dance and iconography.

It is neither depoliticized nor apolitical. Kurtycz and Los Grupos, however, share the fate of having received little recognition, as a result of their determination to remain aloof from art institutions, and often to sabotage them actively. Over recent years, however, they have gained visibility, as art historians begin to discuss the crisis of representation in s art and the singularities of the neo-avant-garde in Latin America. For not only was he deeply involved with performance art and other ephemeral practices, but he openly embraced an aesthetic of destruction.

However, he kept a record of most of his actions and built a personal archive throughout his life. The first one, openly militant, runs from to ; the second one from to c. With this definition Kurtycz situated his work in the non-objectualist avant-garde that gained currency in Mexico in the s see Bustamante [].

For Juan Acha , who played a central role as theorist of the movement, during this decade non-objetualism searched to redefine the arts according to local and Latin American realities. The artist, however, was referring to the use of the term in electronics, computing, and even cellular biology, where it describes an array of circuit elements forming a grid, a network or an amorphous fibrillar material supporting and interconnecting cells.

But I would like to emphasize that it also has a matricial or networking aspiration, realized by putting collages and printed materials in movement and drift between distant places, allowing information flows through non-established ! Fonz This approach points at the artificial distinction between objectual and non-objectual art.

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The eight-year long matrix Softwars c. Some of the bombs were almost classical handwritten or typed letters, but others were individually assembled collages or other sorts of ! Although Kurtycz bombed people in positions of power, he often knew them personally and showed affection towards them. Therefore, he saw the bombs as a means to decry their institutional role while also establishing a dialogue, in order to persuade them to adopt a different approach to the promotion and circulation of artworks.

The latter is a technique, invented by Kurtycz, which uses a typically Mexican metal hotplate for cooking called comal and brightly colored crayons melted together. With the sole ironic requests of avoiding the use of dynamite unclassified document, Kurtycz Archive. Knowing that symbolic capital is the object of fierce ego-battles and is often obtained by means of disqualifying other cultural agents, Kurtycz endeavored to create a situation of conflict within the journal. One of the bombs also tried to intimidate them, by stating that an attempt to send more harmful materials had failed, as they had been confiscated at the border, but new attacks would eventually come.

Kurtycz was hoping for the journal editors to critically reflect on their hegemonic position in global art circuits. The journal, however, never acknowledged their reception.

Juan Arcocha

The effect is similar to a spoonerism. It allowed Kurtycz, as an exiled artist, to situate his art in a larger context than the Mexican cultural scene and insist on the importance of creating art networks that are not fully dominated by US and European discourses. In this sense, he engineered a counter-hegemonic relational technology that combined affection and intimate communication with revolt and criticism.

Bataille, Georges. Translated by Robert Hurley. New York: Zone. Bazzichelli, Tatiana. Networking: The Net as Artwork. Bishop, Claire. London: Verso. Bourdieu, Pierre. Paris: Seuil. Bourriaud, Nicolas. Relational Aesthetics. Translated by Simon Pleasance and Fronza Woods. The relational networks constituted through these insistent bombardments allowed them to discuss new ideas and organize collaborative projects.

He also sent Kurtycz postal cards with poems and pictures of his performances unclassified documents, Kurtycz Archive. Thus, the different events of the matrix were weaved together by reusing the images, but each time an image was used anew it was resituated in its context by means of subtle modifications.

New York: El Museo del Barrio. Camnitzer, Luis. Austin: University of Texas Press. Fonz, Marco, El ojo lleno de dientes. The End of History and the Last Man. London: Hamish Hamilton. Gilbert, Zanna. Greenberg, Clement. Art and Culture: Critical Essays. Boston: Beacon. Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. Le partage du sensible. Paris: La Fabrique. Aesthetics and Its Discontents. Translated by Steven Corcoran. Cambridge: Polity Press. Saper, Craig J. Networked Art. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Candidate The University of Texas at Austin!

A dynamic culture of multimedia art emerged between the late s and the early s in Brazil, as artists appropriated newly available technologies of mass communication. Brazil had decidedly begun a new political phase, with the military regime drastically limiting freedoms of speech and of political mobilization. In turn, certain artists incisively began to utilize these commodities as the media for a radically new and subversive artistic language.

Mass print communication technologies impacted the artistic scenes of several cities in Brazil. Coupled with the increased availability of photographic equipment, this altered technological panorama became the source for young artists to articulate a radically different mode of expression. By the beginning of the decade the military regime had greatly intensified its repressive measures; the exuberance of Nova Objetividade had dissipated, not least in the exile of some of its main proponents; the art market continued to expand and, with it, came a growing distrust of its value !

The works also show how these artists appropriated ! There were two issues of Qorpo Estranho published in , and a third, under the title Corpo Estranho, in However, the uniform format of On-Off and its binding together of different works for distribution makes it more akin to a magazine. However, the series contained no editorial text, only presenting the works themselves.

A particular group of images in the series, made in , introduce the artist in a frontal portrait from the chest up, and in each subsequent individual photograph he faces the camera in the same position. In the first image, a rectangular snapshot— a postcard—reproducing the Brazilian flag stands in for his face. He further subverts it by circulating these again via airmail. Moreover, photography here does not act to document an ephemeral event—rather, it serves to replicate the composition and precision of!

I propose Postal Circulation as a more appropriate translation. Instead, he uses offset printing to identically replicate the imprint throughout the sheet. Whereas the fingerprint acts as a metonym for the body, thereby reiterating official cataloguing and archiving of individual identities, the artist confronts this imposed correspondence between biometry and identity by substituting his manual gesture for a mechanically made reproduction. The indexical trace is also a central component of Carimbos Rubber Stamps , , by Carmela Gross, in which strokes and scratches appear to have been methodically applied onto!

These seemingly hand-made imprints, however, are rubber stamps uniformly pressed onto the paper. The artist then exhibited rows of these sheets, or bound them into books for distribution. In doing so, all three works propose to redefine the artwork so that it has no original; it materializes, simultaneously, in multiples. Yet the historiography on art of the s and s in Latin America insists on only seeing a binary in conceptual approaches to the object—either the object is completely dematerialized in favor of ephemeral actions or linguistic investigations, or the object exists in the form of the Duchampian readymade.

In this myopic binary, there is no space left for the use of visuality, formal experimentation, or materiality as strategies for articulating artistic and political critique. They were moved to PESP, where they can be seen today. I thank professor Laura Malosetti Costa for her comments on my paper. I also thank Alex Miyoshi for generously sharing information and discussing his interpretation on the subject of the Museu Paulista collection with me. With this purpose will serve its current Director [ The ! This purpose will not only be a document for the History of Civilization, but also a means to give an aesthetic education to our population, to protect our outstanding artists, and to propel all spheres of activities, that, in harmonious interaction, as Lastarria says, constitute the progress of a people.

He is surrounded by cornstalks, and typically holds one behind his left ear, waiting to be filled with the tobacco he is chopping with a knife. The painting vividly captures a very particular gesture that is immediately recognizable as a local habit, as well as a specific environment. Bontempo, , p. He was sharpening his ax when someone identified with the spectator , is passing by and salutes him. The painting technique, made of small strokes of warm, high-tone colors, as well as the strongly structured pyramidal composition of the figures, with very precise diagonals, also help draw attention to the gestures and objects.

The intense light captures the suspension of time, holding the figures and landscape together. The whole function for these paintings in the museum was that of historical and ethnographic documents. They were called to testify the practices that were disappearing with modernization. The Secretary Cesario Motta Junior justifies the purchase arguing that the countryman, the farmer, was a traditional type in process of disappearing: In proportion with the advances of the civilization in our cities and fields.

To fixate him in canvas was a necessity, as time will come that the intelligent enquirer, when willing to reproduce our past and totalize it, so to speak, there will find this legendary type, conserved by the powerful and talented observation of a fellow countryman that honors us. The Secretary also makes a statement to the Congress, saying that it should not hold funds for this purpose: The paintings done by our compatriot painters are easily sold in Rio de Janeiro; we have no excuse from absenting ourselves from buying at least the ones that make reference to our habits, to our race, to our history.

In , he wrote and staged a play called Caipirinha [Little Countrywoman], where he portrayed the adventures and misadventures of the countrymen and countrywomen surviving the menaces of the city and the Government. His lifestyle and his traditions are part of what constitutes its very core. The term determines the time of the year between March and April , where it was good to sail from Portugal to the East. It was also the period preferred to make the trip to Cuiaba. But the meaning of the museological operation of bringing the representation of the caipira into the Museum, by the purchase of those paintings, should not be understood as an effort to help to preserve in the present those habits and practices.

On the contrary, those same intellectuals were the first to support in public spheres of debate the necessity of erasing such habits from the regional and national culture, in order to build a civilized country. For instance, the caipira should go to school, change clothes and put on shoes. He should change his way of speaking. His house should be replaced by a new one, made of brick, the brook where he sharpens his ax should be channeled. His swamps drained, his waterfalls and rivers transformed into dams so to facilitate the navigation.

His horse replaced by the locomotive. What should be stressed, though, is what lies behind the specific operation of bringing the caipira to the Museum. His present was considered past. A past that should be remembered, but a reality - a present - that one should overcome. His existence can be perceived as a menace to progress. He belonged only in the memory and the identity constructed by the Museum. A Caipirinha. O Museu Paulista, Paulo, 12 de junho de , p. O Museu Paulista. Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros, v.

Anais do Museu Paulista. Presidente do Estado pelo Dr. Do Municipio, Reis Branco. The colonization of Brazil privileged the more bountiful areas of the Atlantic coast for establishing settlements, which left these hinterlands almost abandoned by public institutions for most part of its history -- for four centuries, illiteracy was almost general. The cangaceiro structured his life according to a series of superstitions and mystical beliefs, following an extensive list of!

But that did not stop them from celebrating their union in a festive wedding. Comments on this threat are abundant in the accounts of former members, and are frequently reproduced in the literature on the theme. On the cover of the newspaper, the full-! These limits had in fact never existed physically, since the cangaceiros did not build or inhabit any permanent protection structures.

Until the thirties, however, they used to live retired from the rest of society, leading an almost ascetic life, but after this period the population of nearby villages came to be invited to the frequent balls organized by the cangaceiros, who now adopted a totally different lifestyle; one dedicated to pleasure, enjoyment, and consumption. Pragmatically, we could say that the origin of the decoration was the newly acquired wealth and the less mobile habits of the group, which meant that members had more time on their hands.

Women, especially, had even more idle hours since they were relatively spared from domestic chores; men were actively engaged in activities such as cooking and cleaning, which left more time for women to sew and embroider. A different way to look at this profuse decoration is to consider it not as a frivolous pastime but as a practice with a powerful function. According to Mello, the symbols used by the cangaceiros, such as Stars of David, fleurs-de-lis, and eight-pointed stars, were probably remnants of motifs that came to Brazil via Iberia and were preserved by the local population, isolated for centuries.

For the historian, these symbols cannot be understood in separate as they do not correspond to defined concepts; rather, they should be seen as an assemblage whose meaning is the result of the combination of disparate emblems. But although they have no precise meaning, the motifs convey, in general, some degree of protection against undefined harmful forces. Of course, neither women nor the local farmers posed a real danger to the cangaceiros, as they would never be able to defeat those heavily armed men.

But the proximity with women and the humble population threatened their identity as a cohesive group; or, better, it indicated that they were no longer ascetic warriors their predecessors had been. In this critical! They became closer to local society, but not so much. A question that comes to mind when we think about the cangaceiros is why they did not invest their wealth on more durable property, such as real estate, in a social context that saw the possession of land as a precondition for respectability.

Also, with houses they would have been able to gather even more extravagant objects. They employed a variety of ways for keeping things in place and close to the body, such as buttons, buckles, straps, chains and gold elements. Sets of two or four colorful satchels called bornais were worn diagonally to carry food, clothes, money, and other small items. The preference for investing money and time on small things instead of permanent structures implies that, for the cangaceiros, symbolic protection -- of their identity as a cohesive group -- was more important than physical protection against any real threat.

Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Francisco Alves, Terra de Sol: natureza e costumes do Norte.

Juan Arcocha

Bradi, Anita and Tony Schirato. Understanding Judith Butler. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routlegde, Undoing Gender. New York, London: Routlegde, Carvalho, Rodrigues de. Cancioneiro do Norte. Daus, Ronald. Galeno, Juvenal. Cenas populares, 2nd ed. Fortaleza: Editora H. Galeno, Grosz, Elizabeth. Cambridge, Mass. London, New York: Routlegde, , pp. Hodkinson, Paul.

Oxford, New York: Berg, , Lins, Daniel Soares. Matza, Davis and Gresham M. Mello, Frederico Pernambucano de. Tania T. Cambridge: BrasilConnects and Fitzwillian Museum, , Queiroz, Maria Isaura Pereira de. Paris: Julliard, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, , pp. Veblen, Thornstein. From two-dimensional ones to installations, cinema and video, the artist has a broad work that is difficult to be grasped at once.

The result reaches a poetic expression of great voltage; it is accomplished in narratives that fragment reality, fictionalize the world and denote a lived experience. His visual world is constructed by elements apparently loose in space and time, and that - however — when processed in a weird narrative they approach us with a reality that we can recognize, but it frightens us. The installations and the variations of supports are not the ones that necessarily cause this experience! With that he experiments, in a singular way, the sense of displacements that a photograph can take on when associated with other images.

Rio Branco documents objects and fragments, which then promote a symbolic disorder when he deprives them from their factual meanings. However, it is important to realize that this deprival is not entirely held. The object returning as an images does not exclude its referentiality; it emerges as part of a poetic reordination. The object is then returned to the beholder with an enigmatic dimension of a referent that has no history but it indexicalizes — in its becoming - a drama densified by its symbolic potency. Why does the image of the dirty dog and nearly furless, lying on the sidewalk cause such a direct impact on us?

There is no way to take production and perception apart - between artist and beholder. Rio Branco creates a sort! The image of the fish in the aquarium — when associated to the dancer on the stage with mirrors — does not only pursue a formal relation. There is something like an interchange of qualities between the fish and the dancer — between their environments. Ruled by red, both of the mirrors stay where the woman moves just like the aquarium that imprisons and protects the fish is built in an engaging seduction.

A picture of a boxing room with mirrors and the bodies sort of agitated passes on an idea that it does not represent the referent completely and, somehow, it is an attempt of changing it, have the person to perceive through another regard. There they are the ghosts, for beyond the bodies. Subjective photography, as I can see it, reveals itself more subtly. One starts from well-determined, but the lived moment builds the definitive work. For Rudolf Arnheim intuition is an indispensable part in the relation that we have with world images. Miguel Rio Branco habla com Tereza Siza. Revista Modulo.

Self-illusion easily emerges in the twilight of such ambiguous conditions. It is about a subversion in the representation system of the documental aesthetics. The poem does not mingle with the images, trying to explain them throughout the book. Each language has its space reserved on the books support and the intensity of exchange and dialog! The comprehension possibility between photographic narrative and poem will be held in the experience of a more sensorial character, initial, abstract.

Such elements are densified in a strong plasticity marked by saturated colors, a low level of luminosity, and by a colorful darkness that — many times — does not allow one to see objectively. I was a portraitist, used to take pictures of women, children and some men. But the work really consisted in scars, nudes, ruins and the force that banged underneath those. The theme has absorbed me and was the reason of a marriage break up. Under the delicate light, the frowned wrinkles of his forehead are so heavy, but his look seems lonely.

The ambiguity created in this single image unfolds in dialog with the previous page — the dog lying on the sidewalk. Man and animal in the same tension line. The iconic and indexical dimensions are interchangeable in the narrative drama. The photographed dog from aerial and frontal view builds itself up in a direct image, objective in his documental capture.

Man and animal living in the same space and place, existing with the same intensity in their wonder and abandon. There is abandonment and strength in this dialog; the limit between exclusion and survival. Rio Branco is always in the limit between life and death, strength and resistance.

It is about an artist that establishes a new condition for the object. In this sense we will be closer to the time distension of each captured object. Vanessa C. Nicaragua at the Turn of the 80s! Nicaragua at the Turn of the 80s Ileana Selejan Ph. Candidate Institute of Fine Arts! Chamorro had been one of the most highly-regarded and most visible critics of the repressive regime of the Somoza family, who had first risen to power with the backing of the United States, following a military coup in Despite the victory, the heavy weight of the war lingered: 40, dead, a ruined infrastructure, and a disastrous economic situation.

By July the rapidly escalating conflict in Nicaragua had made worldwide headlines. Meiselas was ! Leiken, Robert S. New York: Summit Books, The Frente was officially founded in by a group of Marxist intellectuals, reviving an earlier resistance movement led by the notorious guerrillero Augusto Cesar Sandino, who fought against the U. In response, in she published Nicaragua, June July , bringing together in book form a selection of seventy-two iconic photographic documents of the revolution. The photographs are given precedence, as the captions and further textual information is postponed to the end.

The pictures, we are prompted, are what we should be primarily reacting to. A year of news, as if nothing had happened before, as if the roots were not there, and the victory not earned. This book was made so that we remember. The reception of the book was strong, yet divided. By with a triumphant left-leaning ruling coalition, Nicaragua had become entangled in broader, global conflicts over power, influence and the spread of Communism in the whole Central American region.

Already with the support of the Carter administration, but especially with extensive financial backing under Reagan, the remainder of the Somocista National Guard together with other dissenting factions, was able to sustain a decade-long counter-revolutionary war, in an effort to destabilize the Sandinista government. It was instrumental to the efforts of human rights groups, humanitarian organizations, and anti-war activists. In New York for instance, in curator Lucy Lippard, who was one of the main figures behind the artists movement against the war in Vietnam, together with a large group of artists, writers and curators launched Artists Call Against U.

Intervention in Central America, an initiative that organized protest exhibitions as well as public demonstrations in an effort to suspend the aggressive! Setting out on a sarcastic tone, she argued: Once there was a brutal dictator in steamy Central America who so abused his people, grabbing most wealth, stifling initiative, and causing misery, that waves of discontent spread throughout the entire population until finally peasants, lawyers, housewives, businessmen, and even priests and nuns rose up in outrage.

Despite incredible atrocities, they eventually succeeded in driving out the beast and his minions, and they looked forward to living in peace forever after. Within Nicaragua cultural discourse was dominated by more immediate concerns; soon! The majority of Nicaraguan photographers and filmmakers active at the time worked on government commissions rather than on independent projects, mainly due to prohibitive material constraints, and also because of the subjection of the majority of the cultural sector to the revolutionary state.

Working on assignment, she documented the massive social and political changes undergone throughout the decade, moving back and forth from Managua to the remotest, and most embattled regions of the country. But her formation was that of a fine art photographer, and not of a journalist. The pictures felt uneasy, fraught with contradictions, in fact the realistic contradictions of a country still at war, and increasingly divided.

Throughout the 80s Nicaragua received scores of photographers, filmmakers, journalists, poets, artists, activists, and volunteers. Some of the most acclaimed photojournalists of the! Their photographs and stories helped to significantly alter knowledge about the war, and to subvert the pro- Reaganite terms in which it was presented to the public in the U. Few foreign photographers however remained in the country long enough to pursue the kind of in-depth, extensive project that Susan Meiselas was interested in. Towell was also the only foreign photographer to travel to the secluded Solentiname Archipelago, located in Lake Nicaragua, in the southeastern part of the country.

It was there that in , motivated by the promises of the precepts of Liberation Theology priest and poet Ernesto Cardenal, together with a group of likeminded artists and poets established a Utopian community to resist the Somoza ! In Susan Meiselas co-curated El Salvador: Work of Thirty Photographers, which consisted of work by the majority of the photographers active in the war in El Salvador, including her own; it was intended as a protest show, an attempt to raise awareness yet again to the brutal consequences of the involvement of the American government in an already bloody conflict between the right wing military regime and left-wing guerilla groups.

By as the show began to travel in the U. Meiselas and Towell partly distributed their work in commercial media venues, but most importantly produced photography books, and presented their photographs in traveling exhibitions in the United States. Their pictures were made primarily in order to travel, rather than to remain within the landscape they captured. The aesthetic means each of these photographers used, whether it was color or black and white photography, whether the work was presented in narrative form, as a collection of images, or simply as illustrative material on the pages of newspapers, played a significant part in how the conflict was debated, historicized and remembered; the argument here is that activism and its effectiveness does not solely revolve around the content of images, but also around the deliberate decisions that go into their making and presentation.

None of these projects can be accurately considered in isolation. Through this ongoing research project I would like to open the debate on activism in relation to this immediate reaction to disaster, and find an alternative route by which to describe the ways in which contemporary photographic discourses shaped a landscape of conflict. This paper began with a question: what happens when one places Western-based, centralized, aesthetically refined photojournalism, at the same table with the highly stereotyped roughness and resourcefulness of work from the periphery?

Do possibilities emerge for the writing of mutual histories? There are significant! I hope this paper shows why a shift of perspective is pressing. Selected Bibliography Aguirre, Erick et al. Abbott, Brett, ed. Engaged Observers. Documentary Photography since the Sixties. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, Breckenridge, Janis. Schwartz and Mary Beth Tierney-Tello, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Buchsbaum, Jonathan.

"No me quiero Bañar", sencillo de mi álbum "Salta sin Parar"

Cinema and the Sandinistas. Fimmaking in Revolutionary Nicaragua. University of Texas Press, Cardenal, Ernesto. Memorias Tomo III. Managua: Anama Ediciones Centroamericanas, Nostalgia del futuro. Pintura y Nueva Noticia en Solentiname. Chomsky, Noam. Turning the Tide. Intervention in Central America and the Struggle for Peace.

Boston, Mass. Craven, David. Art and Revolution in Latin America Dematteis, Lou and Chris Vail, eds. A Decade of Revolution. New York: W. Norton and Company, Guardia, Gloria. Con Ernesto Cardenal. Un viaje a Solentiname. Kunzle, David. The Murals of Revolutionary Nicaragua Lubben, Kristen, ed. Susan Meiselas. In History. New York: International Center of Photography, Meiselas, Susan, and Claire Rosenberg, eds. Nicaragua June - July New York: Pantheon Books, Rosler, Martha. Sontag, Susan. Regarding the Pain of Others. New York: Picador, Steichen, Edward. The Family of Man. Towell, Larry.

Windsor, Ontario: Art Gallery of Windsor, Testimonies from Nicaragua. Trenton: The Red Sea Press,!

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Order is, at one and the same time, that which is given in things as their inner law, the hidden network that determines the way they confront one another, and also that which has no existence except in the grid created by a glance, an examination, a language. It has become common place, the fact that more and more propositions of contemporary art practices of the international circuit have been relentlessly conducting critical investigations about the ordering of social, individual and cultural memories through archival practices.

Here, we are going to look at specific cases of non-linear archival narratives that through a critical self- reflexion about its role in re-inscribing memory have been facing a struggle of reconciling ontological, historical, private temporalities and memories. At the same time, these artworks challenge collective memory, a construction that connects and that creates a notion of the belonging of individuals to a certain society, and archive, the shelter of many documents that normalize memory, as objective models for ordering the world.

This epistemological turn is a! However, as Derrida reminds us, even though the archive will never substitute the memory and anamnesis the regress or access to memory as an internal, live and spontaneous ! In the s Hal Foster identified a generation of artists that had been collecting and re-arranging images and information that otherwise could be lost in a constant flux.

Foster frames these artworks under what he calls an Archival Impulse October no. If, as Brockmeier proposed, memory is imbricated in the cultural fabric and cannot be distinguished from our individual processes of remembering and forgetting, would archival art practices that are reformulating the construction of memory at the same time that are challenging the objectiveness of the archival model also be at the forefront of this paradigmatic change in the social and cultural studies of memory?

With this issue in mind, I would like to examine how memory is re-interpreted through archival practices of two artists of subsequent generations working in the contemporary art circuit in Brazil. This social obliteration of certain aspects of its history is, as the Brazilian critic Paulo Herkenhoff points out, not forgetfulness by unconscious repression, but erasing by ideology and other power practices. She knew that despite the desire for memory and the archival impulse, the access to neglected fragments of the past and the !

Sontag, On Photography, London: Penguin, Through this opening character on information and meanings we are reminded that, without the active exercise of choice between drinking the water of the remembrance or forgetfulness, the winds of culture will decide for us what to remember and what to forget. The archival material of this practice works as an activating element, and not a documentation of memory. If the North American author diagnosed the way !

In Greek mythology the spirits transiting to death who drunk the waters of the river of Lethe would forget their earthly life; Lethe represented forgetfulness, oblivion. Another river, Mnemosyne, had water that promoted remembrance, and the reach of truth. The private houses and public buildings from this period were shortly neglected in the name of new waves of modernization, and, nowadays, most are in a depredated state. Researching in public archives for images of these constructions from the time they were new, the artist says that he missed an element of connection with the human aspect, which would give these buildings a sense of the experience of a lived place.

Coming to meet his inquiry and search for the human aspect, the artist was given a diary of a man living in Recife and writing between and , that a friend had found in a bin. The diary narrates two years of the life of a young man that, in a dilettante way, writes about his routine, the places he frequents, the people he knows, the jobs he keeps losing and the things he is discovering: lots of love affairs, bars, some books, some plays and very few political opinions — which is relevant when one thinks that during this period Brazil was under a harsh dictatorship.

In a way this anonymous! Furthermore, in a poignant way, the character is living the modernism of the city not under its glory days in the late s and s, when there was still a dream of leveling with the industrial developed world, but under its downfall, the s, a time when the anachronisms between economic and social developments starts becoming more evident. Jonathas uses his archaeological glance, departing from the present, to connect these different temporalities: the official s from the public archive images; the private s of the personal portraits he collects from people who lived in Recife at this time; the s of an anonymous character in his libidinous relationship with the city; and the present of an artist fascinated by the images of an utopian past, reflected in the pictures he took himself of how the s buildings look today.

As Giorgio Agamben reminds us, a contemporary is the one who has a fractured vertebra, that does not coincide with his present because he has to conciliate his singular or private time with the historical or ! In the face of the impossibility in controlling the relationship with the finite temporality, humankind, as Derrida anticipated, keeps returning to the archive. In effect, it was conceptualized in way that would have pleased the artist. Was this abyss between academic reflection and personal experience due to the time lapse 60 years , or was it simply showing a common gap between theory and practice?

Strikingly, Suely Rolnik whose research is concentrated on Clark's late works and psychology was absent though. Firstly, a brief historical introduction on the emergence of the Neoconcrete movement in which Lygia Clark participated aims to explain how this movement changed the premises of Concrete Art in a way that opened it up for tactile and body-centered artworks and the possibility of play.

Secondly, the above- mentioned artworks by Lygia Clark will be considered against the backdrop of play theory. Before Clark began experimenting with body-centered art practices, she started her career with Concrete painting in the Ruptura group. It was only when she became part of the Neoconcrete group in that she proceeded to integrate body-centered practices into her works. Still, constructive elements can be traced throughout her entire trajectory as an artist.

The Bichos , her most famous work series form the Neoconcrete period, combine tactile and Concrete elements. This combination might seem contradictory at first glance, yet considering the cultural-artistic developments in Brazil at that period might help a non-Brazilian public to understand the work.


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The Ruptura group existed between and in Rio de Janeiro. Teo van Doesburg, creator of the Concrete Manifesto in , states that the artwork is a creative act of the rational mind and is therefore free of emotion, nature and sensuality. However, this process culminated in a different discourse on Concrete Art in Brazil from that in Europe. Ferreira Gullar, author of the Neoconcrete Manifesto, argues that the intuitive! Gullar []: 13; Pedroas Cited after Morais unpaginated. The latter becomes explicit in Lygia Clarks Bichos series. They were originally presented as manipulable objects which could be converted into a new artwork by each spectator-participant.

Nevertheless, Clark had play in mind when she created the Bichos for the participation of the art public as she states in her own writings: When man plays with the Bichos he begins the adventure of being disconnected from this ethical concept [spectator's traditional role as an observer of an artwork with a fixed plane or base] and learns this disconnection, with everything that is fixed and dead.

He plays with life, he identifies himself with it, feeling it in its totality, participating in a unique and total moment, he exists. This is the moment when the baby experiences its separateness and its independent existence from its mother. At the same time it recognizes consciously its union with its mother.

Clark []: The interaction is meant to be a haptic, cognitive process that involves more than the spectator's hands by aiming at a full bodily involvement. These places might come close to a Foucauldian Heterotopia, as they are simultaneously open to the public and closed for they are not public places , and physically real and imagined created by men. Yet, this might exactly be the purpose of play in art: to destabilize the fixed separation line between reality and unreality, for example when employed as an instrument of social critique. Foucault []: Mesch 63! This is a task that still needs further research especially in connection with modern and contemporary art.

The reception of these artworks in the moment of their creation must have been quite different from today. Spectator's interaction with an artwork other than through sight was groundbreaking in late s and early s in Brazil. The slightly odd sensation of misbehavior I felt during my visit to Clark's retrospective would have been much more intense for an early s audience. The act of touching the Bichos was in fact an activity that did have a serious aesthetic and political connotation at that moment, because it changed the conception of art itself and questioned the roles of societal behavior in an exhibition space.

An experience with the Bichos nowadays cannot entail that same seriousness. Differences that also affect reception can still be identified in the practices of display in Brazil and in Western Museums. Even though no direct contact or exchange can be traced between the Brazilian artist and the international group, it is very likely that Clark knew about their activities. Further connections between Lygia Clark and the situationists can be found concerning their ideas about architecture.

Lygia Clark uses the same ludic approach in her architectural proposals, as her models are made for interaction. This proves that playfulness is far from discrediting the artist. On the contrary: it accounts for her unique creative process. The playful character of her! Schneiner The way in which this concept refers to Concrete Art will need to be explored in further research.

Grupo Frente , 3. Bravo in Hein. And here, the activity related to children - understanding childhood as an innocent stage of life — is well applied to a huge amount of population who did not know how to read and write, and who were, to the eyes of Paulo Freire and Augusto Boal, exploited to death by the small capitalist social and economic groups. Therefore, the only way to not only teach, but help, these people acknowledge the situation in which they were living was through games. This crisscrossing of aesthetic and political intention has been resignified, obtaining a ticket towards a different discourse that will make use of not only the visual arts, but of the theatrical language in which biological or medical language must be used and most certainly understood.

Nevertheless, the result turn out to be a polisemic performance in which all of it turns into a game, a performance and a game everyone must play during the intervention. This practice of which I am speaking now becomes a matter of interest, mainly because it is directly related and based on games and play, as well as it starts its itinerary within the rules of the performing arts field.

It is well known that Dr. Patch Adams! All of the members are trained specially in the performing arts discipline, although the must have skill is also drawing, if the situations so requires. The members are psychologists, oncologists, pediatricians, social workers and actors. Everyone of them must master acting, on the one hand because it is through wearing a body mask resembling a clown but not a clown , the way they work; and on the other because they intervene in order to reinforce the confidence of patients and families in the treatment, transforming the place into a friendly, not scary, ambiance.

Of course there is no other way to achieve this other than through play and games. This is why they have to be able to play, understand the purpose of play in this specific situation a hospital and have to try to involve the patients in play and aesthetics realms; activities such as imaginary drawing on a wall, telling a story, giving them an object they have to care for from one intervention to another.

Buenos Aires, Ediciones del sol. El teatro y su doble. Barcelona: Edhasa. Roca Cora. Buenos Aires: Taurus. Las reglas del arte. Barcelona: Anagrama. El sentido social del gusto. Argentina: Siglo Veintiuno editores. Campo del poder, campo intelectual.

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Argentina, Editorial quadratta. Buenos Aires: Fausto. DIAZ, Ester. Buenos Aires: Editorial Biblos. El esquivo evidente. Cupertino, California: Publicaciones Meta. ISBN Berkeley, California: La rana de Publicaciones. El sentido del orden. La danza de la realidad. Barcelona: Paidos. Espacios y creatividad. Buenos Aires: Galerna. A la escucha. Madrid: Amorrortu. Madrid: Catedra. La luz en el teatro. Manchester: Manchester University Press. The ritual process: structure and anti-structure. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Carnival, ritual, and play in Rio de Janeiro. In Alesandro Falassi, Time out of time: essays on the festival. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Erin L. McCutcheon Tulane University! The year remains a major historical moment of what is now known as second wave feminism throughout the world. This activity, though localized by country, was felt across the globe as women fomented politically, economically and socially motivated movements to encourage change. Art institutions such as the well-respected Academy of San Carlos, also coordinated student shows.

After its installation, her name was torn from the wall, and in its place written in large, bold letters: PUTA whore. Through this presentation I will investigate some aspects of the largest exhibition at MAM — Woman as Creator and Theme of Art — as a tool to help unpick these complexities. Here, as in the rest of the world, women have made their entrance into the magical realm of art relatively late. In this initial positioning, Gamboa implies that women artists — both in Mexico and around the world — have been unproductive, or at least less productive than male artists, until recent decades.

Gamboa attributes this invisibility to the artists themselves, rather than interrogating the processes that make and solidify their history. He goes on to say: Art knows no gender boundaries. What matters is originality and creative powers. I wish it were so all over the world: a woman painter, a painter, a sculptor, a woman sculptor, all are equal.

Appreciation by the public and critics does not depend in any way on sex, but only of artistic ability and personality. Affirming that art knows no gender boundaries in relation to an exhibition structured upon gender difference seems a rather confusing statement to make. Gender binaries were set up in the curatorial selection process to show a very small sampling of women artists juxtaposed with better-known male artists. When examining the images from the catalogue of artworks included by male artists, we see a selection of domestic family scenes, soldaderas assisting men during the revolution, faceless women at work in the kitchen, seductive nudes and weeping mothers.

While admittedly many of these works, when considered in their historical context, serve more to illustrate national! Looking to the introduction to the section of the exhibition devoted to male artists, Gamboa reflects: Part of the exhibition is the image of woman as she lives in the creative imagination of man. Not woman as muse in the conventional way, but the present woman. Where within the exhibition is there a space for the modern Mexican woman, the woman who would have been concerned with the feminist events of ?

In this portrait she wears the Tehuana costume that came to define her public persona, reflecting the strong link Kahlo felt towards Mexican indigenous culture. Indigenous women came to symbolize national authenticity… they presented the ideal metaphor for both the feminine and the indigenous conditions. Hailing from Tehuantepec in the southeast of the state of Oaxaca, Tehuanas are known throughout Mexico for their colorful dress and strong personalities.

Zavala explains: ! This was partially the result of a misconstrual of Tehuantepec culture as matriarchal and as conserving free sexual mores. As Kahlo chose to depict herself in Tehuana dress in the majority of her self-portraits, it seems MAM would not have been hard-pressed to find an alternate image. Had they been limited by their collection, another painting included in the exhibition, such as the iconic The Broken Column, could have been used. Mari Carmen Ramirez explains the identity producing power of exhibitions: Art exhibitions are privileged vehicles for the representation of individual and collective identities, whether they consciously set out to be so or not.

By bringing together works produced by artists, as individuals or as members of a specific community, they allow insights into the ways those artists visually construct their self-image. Historicizing Latin American women artists in this way works to relegate them to the periphery, thus erasing their importance to an understanding of art history internationally. We must look to new tactics of representation, while also decoding the false histories of the past, in order to implement change.

Catherine de Zegher states: The curatorial procedure may be likened to an excavation of material traces and fragmentary histories, which would be recombined into new stratigraphies or configurations to produce new meanings and insights of reality. There are examples of some such alternative efforts taking place today within Mexico.

Founded in , Mayer is funded solely by grants, which she writes herself, in addition to continuing her work as a performance artist. She perpetually opens her home to visiting scholars from around the world to view the exhaustive archive she has compiled, and has recently completed a digital version of a portion of this material that she is making available to universities and museums. Another alternative site of production is the online Museum of Mexican Women Artists.

Here artists — including Monica Mayer, Magali Lara — work alongside academics to curate regular virtual and temporary physical exhibitions of Mexican women artists. The website allows public access to its archive, providing a unique resource that subverts the traditional museological space. Alternative venues such as these could serve as a model for the future of feminist art historical study both within Mexico and beyond of its borders.

It is through new strategies and interventions, such as the few mentioned here — and more we have learned of over the past few days attending this conference — that we will be able to combat the problem of marginalization and misrepresentation. We must not simply accept the history of the recent past as certain, and should strive to decode its events. In resisting the solidifying of false histories, we uncover multiple layers of truth, identities and meaning to better understand and affect our own present.

It is through this work that we are also able to highlight the stories of unique and important artists who balance on the edge between the visible and invisible — exploring its possibilities and opening new spaces for dialogues to emerge. In On Exactitude in Science, Jorge Luis Borges writes about a forlorn Empire with such passion for cartography that it produced a large detailed map whose dimensions equated that of the entire land.

Following generations, however, found the map obsolete, neglected it and let it fade in with the landscape that it covered.